du̯ō(u) (*du̯ei-)

    du̯ō(u) (*du̯ei-)
    English meaning: two
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “zwei”
    Grammatical information: m. (grammatical double form duu̯ōu), du̯ai f. n., besides du̯ei-, du̯oi-, du̯i-
    Note: compare the summary by Brugmann II2 2, 6-82 passim.
    Material: 1. O.Ind. m. dvaú , dvǘ (ved. also duváu, duvǘ ) = Av. dva m., O.Ind. f. n. dvḗ (ved. also duvḗ ) = Av. baē f. and n. “two”; instr. dat. abl. O.Ind. d(u)vǘ bhyüm (has changed with ü), Av. dvaēibya (with old idiphthong, as Lith. dviem̃ etc), gen. sg. O.Ind. d(u)váyoḥ; by compression of O.Ind. d(u)vü-: d(u)vü-daśa “12” (== Gk. δώδεκα); Arm. erku “two” (= O.Ind. dvǘ); Gk. Hom. δύ(F)ω (*δFω in δώ-δεκα), gen. dat. Ion. Att. δυοῖν, next to which uninflected Hom. Att. Dor. etc δύ(F)ο (to form s. Schwyzer Gk. I 588 f.; to rudiment IE *du̯ō s. Meillet BAL.-SLAV. 21, 273, due to Arm. erko-tasan 12, Lat. duŏ-dēnī, O.Ind. dva-ká- “the two together”, but it could be directed after compositions with o-stems in the first part, as well as from Goth. O.N. O.S. O.E. O.Fris. wi-t “ we two “, O.N. it, O.S. O.E. git “you two”); Alb. dũ m., dũj f. “two” (*duu̯ō, respectively *duu̯ai); Lat. duo (from *duō), f. duae (neologism), Umbr. (only with plur. inflection) dur nom. m. “two” (*duōs, *duūr), desen-duf acc. m. (12), duir “two”, tuva acc. n.; O.Ir. düu, dō nom. acc. m. (= O.Ind. dvüu), before Subst. dü (proclitic form), fem. dī (= O.Ind. dvḗ ), neutr. dü n- “two”, O.Welsh Bret. masc. dou, fem. Welsh dwy (etc); Gaul. VN Vo-cor-ii, Vo-contii (compare Tri-corii) with *u̯- besides du̯-; compare Thurneysen Gk. 182; Goth. m. twai, f. twōs, n. twa, O.N. tueir m., tuǣ r f., tuau n., O.E. tū m., twü f. (= O.Ind. dvḗ ); O.H.G. zwēne m., zwü, zwō f., zwei n. etc (O.H.G. zweio “to two” loc. Du. = Lith. dvíejau, dvíejaus); Lith. dù m. (from *dvúo = O.Ind. dvǘ), dvì f. (= O.Ind. dvē); Ltv. divi m. f. (from *duwi f. n.), O.Pruss. dwai m. f.; O.C.S. dъva m., dъvě f. n.; Toch. A m. wu, f. we, B m. f. wi (neologism); compare above Gaul. vo-; Hitt. ta-a-an (tün) “ secondly, second “, ta-a-i-u-ga-aš (tüyugaš) “two years old” (: Lith. dveigỹs “two years old animal”?). About the first part from εἴκοσι, vīgintī etc (old dissimilation from *du̯ī̆-, *du̯ei-dk̂mtī ??) s. u̯ī-k̂m̥t-ī “ twenty “.
    Note: The following dw-, vd- > b- is originally a Lat.-italic phonetic mutatIon. In compound IE du̯i- and from it under unclear condition developed di- : O.Ind. dvi- (e.g. dvi-pád- “ bipedal “), Av. bi- (e.g. bi-mühya- “ lasting two months “), Arm. erki (erkeam “ biennial “), Gk. δι- (e.g. δίπους; da δίφρος “ curule chair, seat” was not δί-, rather δFί-φρος, if not perhaps dissimilatory loss of F is not against the following φ, also for other δι- formation to consider from IE *du̯i-), aLat. dui-, Lat. bi- (e.g. dui-dens, bidens; about forms as diennium s. WH. I under biennium, Sommer Hdb.3 223; Umbr. di-fue “ cleft, parted, split “ probably sound pattern from du̯i-), O.N. tve- (also tvī-, see below), O.E. twi-, O.H.G. zwi- (e.g. O.E. twi-fēte “ bipedal “, O.H.G. zwi-houbit “ bicipital “), Lith. dvi- (e.g. dvì-gubas “ twofold “, O.Pruss. dwi-gubbus). Ital. du- in Lat. du-bius, -plus, -plex, -pondius, -centī, Umbr. tuplak acc. sg. n. “ twofold “, du-pursus “ bipedibus “ is innovation after being perceived as du- stem from duo; also is to define du- in Umbr. duti “ again, a second time, once more, anew “, püli dutiyam “ for the second time “; about Ltv. du-celes “ zweiräderiger Wagen “ compare Trautmann 125, Mũhlenhach-Endzelin I 509, Endzelin Ltv. Gk. 358. Zero grades du̯ei- in compounds is to be admitted for Celt. (e.g. O.Ir. dē-riad “ a span of horses, pair, two horses harnessed to an open car “, díabul “ twofold “, Welsh dwy-flwydd “two years old”; O.Ir. dïas “ duality of persons “ probably from *du̯ei̯o-stho-) and for Gmc. (e.g. O.N. tuī-faldr “ twofold “ besides tuēfaldr; Goth. tweifla-, probably n., O.H.G. zwīfal n. besides Gk. δι-πλός, Lat. duplus). du̯oi- in O.E. getwǣ fan, twǣ man ‘separate, cut, clip” < *twaifjan, *twaimjan; perhaps also for the Ar. (Av. baēǝrǝzufraϑah- “ two fingers wide “, dvaēpa- n. “island”? or rather from du̯ai̯i-, as probably O.Ind. dvēdhü “ twofold, (*divided) in two parts”, compare dvīpá - “island” above S. 51); perhaps Phryg. GN Δοίας, gen. -αντος (*du̯oi-n̥t) “twin”. Slav. dvo-, dvu-, dvě- in compounds s. Berneker 247. 2. ordinals: O.Ind. dvitīya-, Av. bitya-, dabitya-, O.Pers. duvitiya- ‘second”; under duti “ again, a second time, once more, anew “ (probably replacement for *diti from *du̯iti̯om after du-, see above); Arm. erkir, erkrord ‘second”; Alb. i-dũte; all new neologisms. 3. Multiplikativadverb: du̯is “twice”: O.Ind. dvíḥ (ved. also duvíḥ), Av. biš, Gk. δίς, aLat. du̯is, Lat. bis, M.H.G. zwir “twice” (but Ir. fo-dī = O.Ind. n. dvē, Pedersen KG. I 301, II 127), Gmc. myth. PN Tuisto “ hermaphrodite “; Maybe Alb. dũsh “in two” through u̯-forms extended Av. bižvat̃ , O.N. tysuar, tuisuar, O.H.G. zwiro, zwiror (zwiron, zwiront), with voiced ? z- reduction O.E. twiwa, twiga, twia, tuwa, twie, O.Fris. twia, twera, O.S. twio (to these forms lastly Loewe KZ. 47, 98 - 108, reminded in the forms in O.Ind. kr̥tvas “ male “); therefrom with formants -ko- O.H.G. zwisk, O.S. twisk “ twofold “ (see below), probably also Arm. erkic̣s “twice”; with l-forms O.E. twislian “ bisect “, twisla “confluence of two streams”, Ger. Zwiesel “ bifurcation “ (perhaps restricted to *du̯is in the meaning “ divided “, see below); with t-forms O.Ind. dvitǘ “ twofold, double” (therefrom dvüitá -m “Dualität”), ap. duvitüparnam “in two Linien”, gthAv. daibitü “again(?)”. 4. multiplicative: Gk. διπλός, διπλόος, Lat. duplus, Umbr. dupla “ double, twice as large, twice as much “, O.Ir. dīabul (*du̯ei-plo-; see also above Goth. tweifls), wherefore perhaps Av. bifra- n. “ comparison, affinity “ (: root pel- “fold”, compare with t-extension:) Gk. διπλάσιος (*pl̥t-io-), Ion. διπλήσιος “ waved with both hands “, O.H.G. zwifalt ds. Gk. δίπλαξ, Lat. duplex, Umbr. tuplak n. “duplex” (: root plük- “flat, spread”); from adv. z.B. duví-dhü, dvē-dhü (probably *dvai̯i-dhü, that to be read in the oldest texts 3-syllable) “ twofold, in two parts”, wherewith the ending from O.Ir. dēde “ duality of things “ seems to be connected, as well as the from and. twēdi “halb”, O.E. twǣ de “ two thirds “, O.H.G. zwitaran “ hybrid, mongrel, half breed “, Ger. Zwitter. Gk. δίχα “ twofold, divided in two parts “ (after Hom. διχῆ, διχοῦ), next to which (through hybridization with *δι-θά to O.Ind. dvídhü) Hom. διχθά “δίχα”, therefrom Ion. διξός “ twofold “ (*διχθι̯ός or *δικσός), and δισσός, Att. διττός ds. (*διχι̯ός, Schwyzer Gk. I 598, 840); about Hitt. dak-ša-an “ Halbteil “ s. Pedersen Hitt. 141. Here also Alb. degë “ twig, branch, bough, brushwood “ (*du̯oi-ghü); O.H.G. zwīg “twig, branch” (*du̯ei-gho-), O.E. twig “twig, branch” (*du̯i-gho-); O.S. tōg(o), M.L.G. toch, O.H.G. zuog(o) “twig, branch” are reshaped after cardinal forms with twō-; Lith. dveigỹs m. “zweijähriges animal”, Serb. dvìzük “zweijähriger Aries, ram”, old dviz “ biennial “ (: Hitt. düyugas, see above). 5. collective: O.Ind. dvayá- “double” (dvayá-m “ twofold creature, falsity “, nachved. “pair”), dat. f. dvayyái = Hom. ἐν δοιῆι; dvandvám “pair” (from ved. duvǘ -duvǘ “ every two “); Gk. Hom. δοιώ, δοιοί “double, two” (with preservation of -ι̯- through influence of *δFοῖ[F]ιν), ἐν δοιῆ “ in doubt “ (Ir. dīas from *duei̯o-stho-?); Goth. gen. pl. twaddjē (compare with other ending O.Ind. gen. Dual dváyos, Lith. gen. dviejų̃), O.N. tueggia, O.H.G. zweiio, O.E. m. twǣ gen, f. twü, n. tū “two” (see above Sievers-Brunner 264), nom. acc. pl. O.H.G. zwei (*du̯ei̯ü), next to which from IE *du̯ei̯o- O.H.G. M.H.G. zwī, g. zwīes m.n. “twig, branch” (the n-stem O.N. tȳja “doubt” presumably balanced from nom. *tvīja, gen. tȳju); Bal.-Slav. du̯ei̯a- and duu̯ai̯a- in Lith. dvejì, f. dvẽjos “two” (the substantival n. sg. in dvẽja tíek “twice as much”); O.C.S. d(ъ)voji adj. “ twofold, two”, d(ъ)voje n. Subst. “two things” (therefrom derivatives as Russ. dvojnój “double”, dvójni “ twins “, dvójka “pair”, dvojník “ zweidrähtiger Faden “, dvoítь “ in zwei Teile teilen, zwei Fäden zu einem zusammendrehen “, etc, s. Berneker 247). With -no- (partly due to from du̯is): Arm. krkin “double” from *(r)ki-rki-no-, IE *du̯i-du̯is-no- (?) (L. Mariès REtIE. 1, 445); Lat. bīnī “ every two “ (distributive) and “two” (collective) from *du̯is-no- (= Gmc. *twiz-na- ); Gmc. *twi-na- in O.H.G. zwinal, zwenel “ born together, twin-born, twin- “, zwiniling m., M.H.G. zwinilīn n. “twin”, *twai-na- in O.S. twēne “two”, O.H.G. zwēne ds. (it has substituted with ē instead of ei after *zwē = Goth. twai), O.H.G. zwein-zug, O.S. twēn-tig, O.E. twēn-tig “20” (“ Doppelzehn “); Maybe Alb. 20, një-zet “one - ten”, 40, dy-zet “double - ten” Gmc. *twiz-na- in O.N. tvennr, tvinnr “ twofold “, pl. tvenner “ zwei zusammengehörige “ (tvinna “redouble”), O.H.G. zwirnēn, -ōn “ zweifach zusammendrehen “, M.H.G. zwirn, M.L.G. twern “ doppelt zusammengedrehter Faden “ probably = O.E. twīn, Du. twijn “ linen thread, linen “ (O.E. getwinne “ every two “, getwinnas “ twins “ is led back then to *twi-nja-). Besides due to *twīha-, IE *du̯ei-ko-, Goth. tweihnai “two”, O.E. dat. twēonum, betwēonum, Eng. between “ between “; Lith. m. pl. dvynaĩ, Russ. dvójni “ twins “. With -ko-: O.Ind. dviká- “ aus zweien bestehend, zweifach “ (dvaká- “in pairs, by pairs” connected after ēkaká -); O.H.G. zwe(h)o, O.S. twe(h)o, O.E. twēo m. “doubt”, O.E. be-twih, -tweoh “ between “, mid unctwīh “ between us both “ (compare above Goth. tweih-nai); from du̯is- from: O.H.G. zwisk, O.S. twisk “ twofold “, pl. “both” dat. pl. O.H.G. (undar, en) zwiskēn, Ger. zwischen; in addition O.E. getwisa m., O.S. gitwiso, M.H.G. zwiselinc “twin”. With du̯is- “twice” identical is du̯is- “divided, asunder” in Goth. twisstandan “to divide” and den derivatives O.N. tvistra ‘separate”, M.L.G. O.Fris. twist, M.H.G. zwist “discord (split)” and M.Eng. twist = O.N. kvistr “twig, branch” (as also bO.Ir. zwist), further O.N. kvīsl f. “ split branch or tools, arm of a river “ (these with IE ei); further O.N. tvis-var “twice”, tvistr “ dichotomous, sad “ (= O.Ind. dviṣ̌ ṭ ha- “ ambiguous “, Gk. *διστος in διστάζω “ doubt “, IE *du̯i(s)-sto- : root stü-, at most du̯is-to- with formant -to-), O.E. twisla “ arm of a river “, twislian “ bisect “, O.H.G. zwisila, Ger. Zwiesel “ divided object, twig, branch”, M.H.G. zwisel “double”; here very probably ar. dviṣ- “hate” (see under *du̯ei- “fear, dread”). Maybe Alb. më dysh “apart, in two”, dyshi “two” 6. IE additional form dis- in Lat. dis-, O.S. O.Fris. te-, ti-, O.E. te-, O.H.G. zi-, ze- (new zirthrough amalgamation from zi- and ir-) “dis-”, Goth. dis- “apart” (probably borrowed from Lat., barely preceding from *tis- = Lat. dis-), Alb. tsh- e.g. in tshk”ep “unpick”, Gk. διά (i.e. after μετά etc filled in *δι[σ]ά), e.g. δια-σχίζω “through” : Lat. discindo “ to tear asunder, cut apart, cleave, divide, rend, tear “ (“*split in the middle “), as prefix also “ through and through, thoroughly, all through “ = “very” (Eol. ζα-).
    References: WP. I 817 ff., WH. I 104 ff., 354 f., 381 ff., 860, 861, Feist 484 ff., Trautmann 64, Schwyzer Gk. I 588 f., Wackernagel-Debrunner O.Ind. Gk. Ill, 342 f.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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